General Information:

Instructor: Katia Obraczka (katia "at"

Lab: Internbetwork Research Group (i-NRG)  (

Office hours: Thu 5-6pm [Zoom link will be sent by e-mail]

Lectures: T Th 3:20-4:55

Course Overview:

This class covers various topics relevant to wireless networking and mobile computing. It focuses on communication protocols for wireless and mobile networks from medium-access control to end-to-end transport and applications. The course requires extensive reading of research papers and in-class presentations, participation, and discussion. Programming proficiency is assumed since students will be required to complete a major class project.

Pre-requisites: CE 252A or equivalent.

Topics covered:

. Medium access control

. Unicast and multicast routing

. Wireless internetworking

. End-to-end protocols

. Others:

. Networking paradigms: disruption-tolerant networking, software-defined networking

. Edge computing/networking

. Mobility characterization and modeling

. Power and topology management

. Security

. Internet of Things

Resources:   No textbook is required since most of the required readings will be from research papers. The book "Ad Hoc Wireless Networks: Architectures and Protocols" by C. Siva Ram Murthy and B.S. Manoj can be used as a reference. Students can check with the instructor on alternate reference sources. All material for the class will be distributed and managed online using the class Web page.


. In-class presentation: 20%

. Reading reports: 10%

. Project: 40%

. Exam: 30%

IMPORTANT NOTE: Grades of C and below will be assigned to students who do not perform satisfactorily. Students should not assume that a passing grade will be assigned simply because this is a graduate class. 

Student Responsibilities:

Students enrolled in this class are agreeing to the following:

ACADEMIC INTEGRITY: All work turned in as reports, project, and exam MUST be individual. If any work claimed by a student to be their own is found to not to be their own and/or is shared with others, that will be considered a violation of academic integrity and will NOT BE TOLERATED. Academic integrity violations may result in automatically failing the class. For more information on UCSC's academic integrity policies, visit are encouraged to discuss with the instructor any questions they may have regarding academic integrity.

. Students are responsible for reading the papers that will be covered in a specific lecture BEFORE the lecture. All papers must be read in detail even though not all details will be covered in class. A reading report on the papers read needs to be submitted before the class meeting in which the papers will be discussed. More information on reading reports are provided below.

. Students are also responsible for checking the class Web page frequently for updates, schedule changes, etc.

. The course pre-requisite is CMPE 252A or equivalent. Prospective students can talk to the instructor if they do not have the required background. If a student has not taken CMPE 252A (or equivalent) and still wants to take the class, it is the student's responsibility to acquire the corresponding background material.

. As mentioned in the description of the course, students must be proficient (C, C++, Java, Python) programmers as a programming project will account for a considerable portion of the grade.

Class attendance is mandatory. Because this is a graduate class, students are expected to participate actively in class, and that's hard to do if they do not attend class regularly. Attendance will not be recorded, but you cannot miss more than two classes. If you need to miss a class, please let the instructor know (in advance if possible).

. Much of the course material, including reading assignments and lecture notes, will be posted on the class Web page. However, students are responsible for all material covered in class, whether or not it appeared on the class Web site.

Project: Students need to submit a class project on a topic related to wireless networking. The project will involve implementation or simulation. Some project ideas are listed below. Students are required to submit a project proposal (by the end of the 3rd week of class) containing the following: (1) Project title, (2) Motivation and goals, (3) Brief description of proposed approach, (4) Basic design, (5) Evaluation and testing methodology, (6) Demo/results.

Project proposals will not be graded but are mandatory.

Project deliveralbles: As part of the project, students need to submit a written report, source code, and a presentation. Students will prsent their projects at the end of the quarter.

Reading Reports:

Each student is expected to write a one-page report that contains a brief summary of the papers to be read for each class. Summaries are due before the start of the class when the papers will be covered. Summaries are to be submitted as an e-mail attachment (plain text or pdf). Use “CSE 257 Spring21 Reading Report #” as the subject line.

The summary of each paper should include brief answers to the following questions: (1) what is the problem the authors are trying to solve? (2) why is the problem interesting, relevant, and/or important? (3) what other approaches or solutions existed at the time that this work was done? (4) how did the proposed approach contribute to the state-of-the-art, i.e., why existing approaches were not adequate? (5) what is the proposed approach and how does it compare to earlier approaches, in other words, what are the contributions of the proposed approach? (6) what are the main strengths and weaknesses of the paper/proposed approach? After summarizing all papers to be covered in lecture, the report should also include a paragraph with brief compare and contrast commentary of the papers read. It should also include at least 2 questions to be asked during lecture as a way to foster discussion.

Make sure to have a copy of your reports handy during class to help guide class discussion and your participation. 

Student Presentations:

Students will present on a topic of their choice as they relate to wireless and mobile networking. Possible topics include: security in wireless networks, networking architectures and paradigms (DTN, SDN, edge computing. hybrid networks, IoT, etc). Student presenters need to pick a topic of their interest among the ones suggested. Students can also propose a new topic (need instructor's approval). Once the topic is selected, students will choose 3 papers on the topic to be covered. Selected papers need approval from instructor.

Student presentations must provide adequate overview of the topic through the papers selected. Presentations should avoid describing the papers exactly and instead provide an overview of the main contributions, approach, methods described in the papers as well as a the presenter's own observations/perspective. Presentations should provide insight and critical perspective on the state-of-the-art related to the topic being presented. Class discussion should be encouraged. The day of their presentation, the presenter does not need to submit a reading report. They should send their presentation ahead of time so it can be posted on the class Web page. The presentation should include discussion points/questions to encourage in-class discussion/participation.

Schedule (Tentative):

Date Topic Lecture notes
March 30 Course overview lecture 1
April 01 Introduction lecture 2
April 06 Introduction lecture 3
April 08 Medium-access control  lecture 4
April 13 Medium-access control  lecture 5
April 15 Medium access and Unicast routing  lecture 6
April 20 MANET unicast routing 

lecture 7

April 22 ns-3 (by Daniel Alves) and Cooja/Contiki (by Shesha Sreenivasamurthy) tutorials lecture 8, ns-3 tutorial, Cooja/Contiki tutorial 

April 27

MANET unicast and multicast routing & OMNET++ tutorial (by Lakshmi Krishnaswamy)

lecture 9, OMNET++ tutorial
April 29 MANET multicast routing & mininet-wifi tutorial (by Anuj Kaul) lecture 10
May 4 MANET multicast routing & wireless internetworking  lecture 11
May 6 Wireless internetworking & end-to-end protocols  lecture 12
May 11 End-to-end protocols lecture 13

May 13

End-to-end protocols lecture 14
May 18 Exam  
May 20 Edge intelligence (Hari) lecture 15
May 25 IoT (Yuyang) Young's IoT presentation
May 27 Schedule-based MAC (Dylan) Dilan's presentation
June 01 Security in wireless (Jessica) Jessica's presentation
June 03

Project presentation & report guidelines

Reliable multicast 

lecture 16
June 10 Project presentations (12-3pm) Project deliverables due

Lecture recordings available from:

Reading List:

Timeless readings:

. Saltzer et al., End-to-end Arguments in System Design

. Lampson, Hints for Computer System Design

Introduction (April 1)

. L. Kleinrock, "Nomadicity: Anytime, Anywhere In A Disconnected World", Invited paper, Mobile Networks and Applications, Vol. 1, No. 4, January 1996, pp. 351-357. 

. L. Kleinrock, "An Internet Vision: The Invisible Global Infrastructure", Ad Hoc Networks Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 3-11, July 2003.

. M Weiser, "The Computer for the 21st Century", 1991. 

. M. Weiser, "Some Computer Science Problems in Ubiquitous Computing", Communications of the ACM, July 1993. 

  Medium Access Control I - Contention-Based MAC (April 06 and April 8)

. B. P. Crow and I. Widjaja and L. G. Kim and P. T. Sakai, "IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks", 1997. IEEE Communications Magazine, 35(9):116-126. 

. Vaduvur Bharghavan, Alan Demers, Scott Shenker, Lixia Zhang, "MACAW: A Media Access Protocol for Wireless for Wireless LANs", ACM Sigcomm 94. 

. J. J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves and C. L. Fullmer, "Floor Acquisition Multiple Access in Single-Channel Wireless Networks," ACM MONET Journal, Special Issue on Ad Hoc Networks, Vol. 4, 1999, pp. 157-174. 

Medium Access Control II - Scheduled-Access MAC (April 13)

. Venkatesh Rajendran, Katia Obraczka, J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves. "DYNAMMA: A DYNAmic Multi-channel Medium Access Framework for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks", Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Systems (MASS). Oct 2007. Nominated for the best paper award. 

. V. Rajendran, Katia Obraczka, and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, "Energy-Efficient, Collision-Free Medium Access Control for Wireless Sensor Networks", ACM/Kluwer Wireless Networks (WINET), 2006.  

. Djukic, P. and Mohapatra, P., "Soft-TDMAC: A Software TDMA-Based MAC over Commodity 802.11 Hardware", Proceedings of the INFOCOM 2009, 2009.

MANET Unicast Routing I (April 15) 

. Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks, David B. Johnson, David A. Maltz, in Mobile Computing, editor T. Imielinski and Hank Korth, Kluwer, 1996. 

. An Implementation Study of the AODV Routing Protocol, Elizabeth M. Royer and Charles E. Perkins, Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, Chicago, IL, September 2000.

MANET Unicast Routing II (April 20)  

. Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR), RFC 3626.

Samir R. Das, Charles E. Perkins, Elizabeth M. Royer and Mahesh K. Marina. Performance Comparison of Two On-demand Routing Protocols for Ad hoc Networks. IEEE Personal Communications Magazine Special Issue on Ad hoc Networking, February 2001, pp. 16-28.

 [NOTE: We will have the ns-3 and Cooja/Contiki tutorials on April 22]

MANET Multicast Routing (April 27 and April 29) 

Multicast Operation of the Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol. Royer and Perkins, Proceedings of Mobicom, August 1999. 

. On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol. Lee, Gerla and Chiang, Proceedings of WCNC, September 1999. 

OPTIONAL READING: "Robust and Scalable Integrated Routing in MANETs Using Context-Aware Ordered Meshes". Rolando Menchaca-Mendez and J. J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves, INFOCOM'10 Proceedings of the 29th conference on Information communications, San Diego, California, USA.

Wireless Internetworking (May 4 and May 6) 

. A Mobile Host Protocol Supporting Route Optimization and Authentication, Andrew Myles, David B. Johnson, Charles Perkins, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, special issue on Mobile and Wireless Computing Networks, 13(5):839-849, June 1995.

. Mobility Support in IPv6 , Charles E. Perkins and David B. Johnson. Proceedings of the Second Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom'96), November 1996.

. FLIP: A Flexible Interconnection Protocol for Heterogeneous Internetworking, Ignacio Solis and Katia Obraczka, in ACM/Kluwer Mobile Networking and Applications (MONET) Special on Integration of Heterogeneous Wireless Technologies.

Optional: TCP Performance in Mobile-IP, Foo Chun Choong.

End-to-End Protocols I: Infrastructure-Based Wireless Networks (May 11) 

. Improving TCP/IP Performance over Wireless Networks, Hari Balakrishnan, Srinivasan Seshan, Elan Amir, Randy H. Katz. Proc. 1st ACM Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking, Berkeley, CA, November 1995. 

. Delayed duplicate acknowledgements: a TCP-Unaware approach to improve performance of TCP over wireless, Nitin H. Vaidya, Milten N. Mehta, Charles E. Perkins, Gabriel Montenegro. 

. I-TCP: indirect TCP for mobile hosts, 15th Int'l Conf. on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), May 1995.

End-to-End Protocols II: MANETs (May 13) 

. Analysis of TCP Performance over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, G. Holland and N. H. Vaidya, Fifth Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MOBICOM), Seattle, August 1999.

. A Comparison of TCP Performance over Three Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Thomas Dyer, Rajendra Boppana, Mobihoc 2001.

. Improving TCP Performance over Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks with Out-of-Order Detection and Response, F. Wand and Y. Zhang, Mobihoc 2002.

Edge Intelligence (May 20) 

. Convergence of Edge Computing and Deep Learning: A Comprehensive Survey, Xiaofei Wang, Yiwen Han, Victor C.M. Leung, Dusit Niyato, Xueqiang Yan, Xu Chen, IEEE COMMUNICATIONS SURVEYS & TUTORIALS.

Edge Intelligence: Paving the Last Mile of Artificial Intelligence With Edge Computing, Z. Zhou , X. Chen , E. Li, L. Zeng, K. Luo , J. Zhang, PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE, Vol. 107, No. 8, August 2019. 

IoT (May 25) 

. Research Directions for the Internet of Things, John A. Stankovic,  IEEE Internet of Things Journal ( Volume: 1, Issue: 1, Feb. 2014).

. Efficient Continuous Mapping in Sensor Networks using Isolines, I. Solis and K. Obraczka, The Second Annual International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services (Mobiquitous), July 2005.

. SDN-based Service Automation for IoT, Mostafa Uddin; Sarit Mukherjee; Hyunseok Chang; T. V. Lakshman,  2017 IEEE 25th International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP), Oct 2017.

Schedule-Bsed MAC (May 27) 

. A New Approach to Channel Access Scheduling for Ad Hoc Networks, Lichun Bao and J. J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves. 2001, in Proceedings of the 7th annual international conference on Mobile computing and networking (MobiCom '01), 210–221. DOI:

. Collision-free medium access based on traffic forecasting, V. Petkov and K. Obraczka, 2012 IEEE International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM), 2012, pp. 1-9, doi: 10.1109/WoWMoM.2012.6263687.

. MMAC: a mobility-adaptive, collision-free MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks,M. Ali, T. Suleman and Z. A. Uzmi,  PCCC 2005. 24th IEEE International Performance, Computing, and Communications Conference, 2005., 2005, pp. 401-407, doi: 10.1109/PCCC.2005.1460597.

Optional reading:

. Making transmission schedules immune to topology changes in multi-hop packet radio networks, I. Chlamtac and A. Farago, in IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 23-29, Feb. 1994, doi: 10.1109/90.282605.

Security in Wireless (June 1) 

. Wireless LAN Security Threats & Vulnerabilities: A Literature Review by Md. Waliullah & Diane Gan, International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2014.

. Yih-Chun Hu, Adrian Perrig, and David B. Johnson. 2002. Ariadne: a secure on-demand routing protocol for ad hoc networks. In Proceedings of the 8th annual international conference on Mobile computing and networking (MobiCom '02). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 12–23. DOI:  

. S. R. Deshmukh, P. N. Chatur and N. B. Bhople, "AODV-based secure routing against blackhole attack in MANET," 2016 IEEE International Conference on Recent Trends in Electronics, Information & Communication Technology (RTEICT), 2016, pp. 1960-1964, doi: 10.1109/RTEICT.2016.7808179.

 Reliable Multipoint Communication (June 3) 

. Combining Source- and Localized Recovery to Achieve Reliable Multicast in Multi-Hop Ad Hoc Networks, Venkatesh Rajendran, Katia Obraczka, Yunjung Yi, Sung-Ju Lee, Ken Tang and Mario Gerla, Proceedings of the IFIP Networking' 04, May 2004.

. Reliable Adaptive Lightweight Multicast Protocol, Ken Tang, Katia Obraczka, Sung-Ju Lee and Mario Gerla, Proceedings of IEEE ICC 2003, May 2003.

. Ken Tang, Katia Obraczka, Sung-Ju Lee and Mario Gerla, “Congestion Controlled Adaptive Lightweight Multicast in Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, Proceedings of IEEE ISCC, July 2002.

Project Ideas:

Based on the paper: S. Mansfield, K. Veenstra and K. Obraczka, “TerrainLOS: An Outdoor Propagation Model for Realistic Sensor Network Simulation”, In Proceedings of IEEE Computer Society’s MASCOTS, 2016, extend TerrainLOS to incorporate more realistic channel propagation models.

-  Based on the paper: S. Mansfield, K. Veenstra and K. Obraczka, “TerrainLOS: An Outdoor Propagation Model for Realistic Sensor Network Simulation”, In Proceedings of IEEE Computer Society’s MASCOTS, 2016,Port TerrainLOS to ns3. 

 Implement IEEE 802.11 PCF in ns-3.

- Propose a mechanism (e.g., using machine learning) to automatically adjust the route cache TTL for on-demand MANET routing protocols.

- In Yalda Edalat, Katia Obraczka, and Bahadur Amiri, “A Machine Learning Approach for Dynamic Control of RTS/CTS in WLANs”, in IEEE Mobiquitous 2018, a machine learning approach was proposed to enable/disable IEEE 802.11's RTS/CTS. The proposed mechanism uses congestion as well as packet airtime to decide whether turn RTS/CTS on/off. Different metrics can be used to measure channel congestion such as mean access delay, packet delivery ratio, collision probability, status of sender's queue, average length of idle periods, etc.  In this project, you will use SENSE [1] to estimate contention using any of the metrics suggested above, other than collision probability. Based on this estimate, RTS/CTS will be enabled/disabled. As basis of comparison, you will use the standard approach to setting the value of the RT.

[1] Y. Edalat, J. S. Ahn, and K. Obraczka. “Smart Experts for Network State Estimation.” IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Man- agement 13, no. 3 (2016): 622–635.